What exactly is cognitive developmental delay?
Your child is said to have a developmental delay if they are falling behind their age-mates in one or more aspects of their mental, emotional, or physical growth. If your child is behind in their development, getting them into treatment as soon as possible is the best way to help them make progress or even catch up.
There is a wide variety of variation within the category of developmental delays that can affect infants and young children. Problems have been reported with the following: The use of words or speech, Vision, Movement — motor skills, Competences in social and emotional interaction, Thinking — cognitive skills.
On occasion, a significant delay takes place in not one but two or more of these areas. This condition is referred to as “global developmental delay” when it occurs. It refers to children as young as infants and as old as five years old who have delayed development for a period of at least six months.
The term “developmental delay” should not be confused with “developmental disabilities,” which are conditions that typically continue throughout a person’s life and include conditions such as cerebral palsy, hearing loss, and autism spectrum disorder.
Causes and risk factors of cognitive developmental delay
Infants and toddlers learn to crawl, talk, and use the toilet at their own individual rates. However, a child may reach these developmental milestones much later than other children their age. There are many factors that contribute to such delays, including the following: Being born prematurely, Conditions that are caused by genes, such as Down syndrome and muscular dystrophy, Lack of either good vision or good hearing, Malnutrition, Use of alcohol or illegal drugs while pregnant, Abuse of the body or neglect of the body, Lack of oxygen during the labor and delivery process
The following are some warning signs for various types of delays that may appear between the ages of one and two years old.
Language and speech development delay
These are not uncommon signs of delayed development in toddlers. Problems with one’s ability to communicate verbally are the most common form of developmental delay. Expression through verbal means, including the construction of words, is referred to as speech. Language encompasses a wider range of information transmission and reception methods, such as the capacity to comprehend gestural communication.
Types of treatment
If you or your child’s doctor suspects that your child has a speech delay, you will be referred to a speech-language pathologist in order to have your child evaluated. This specialist may perform hearing tests on your child, evaluate your child’s receptive and expressive language, and then plan speech therapy sessions for your child to participate in. If the delay is not severe, the specialist or doctor may suggest the following: Communicate more with your child by talking, singing, and encouraging repetition.
If the delay is severe, the specialist or doctor may suggest the following: Read aloud to your child every day. Emphasize the importance of speech and language. Obtain medical attention for infections in the middle ear.
Vision Developmental delays
Vision in newborns is typically cloudy for the first six months of their lives. Then, as the child begins to coordinate their vision in both eyes, there is an improvement. However, there are times when this does not occur, or other vision issues manifest themselves.
Possible triggers for developmental delays in vision. Children frequently have refractive errors, the most common of which are nearsightedness and farsightedness. Other issues that can affect the eyes include:
- Amblyopia, also known as “lazy eye,” is characterized by impaired vision in one eye, which may also give the appearance of turning outward.
- Infantile cataracts, also known as a clouding of the lens of the eye, or another inherited condition may be the cause (these problems are rare)
- There is a disease of the retina called retinopathy of prematurity that can sometimes affect premature infants.
- Strabismus, also known as “cross eyes,” refers to eyes that are turned inward, outward, upward, or downward.
Types of treatment
Different treatment methods are employed for these conditions depending on the cause, these might include prescription of eyeglasses or contact lens. Sometimes this condition requires surgery on the eye.
Motor skills developmental delay
Problems with gross motor skills, like crawling or walking, or fine motor skills, like using your fingers to grasp a spoon, could be the cause of a delay in the development of motor skills.
Potential reasons for developmental delays in motor skills.
There is a possibility that prematurely born children will not develop their muscles at the same rate as other children.
The following are some additional potential causes of motor delays:
- Ataxia is a disorder that causes problems with muscle coordination.
- Cerebral palsy is a disorder that is caused by damage to the brain before birth.
- Myopathy is a condition that affects the muscles.
- Vision issues are present.
- Spina bifida is a genetic condition that can cause either partial or complete paralysis of the lower body.
Types of treatment
Your child’s physician may recommend that you take particular actions around the house to encourage increased levels of physical activity. There is a possibility that your child will require physical therapy for gross motor delays. Problems with fine motor skills or sensory processing disorder, which occurs when the brain has trouble receiving and responding to information that comes in through the senses, are two examples of conditions that may be helped by certain types of physical or occupational therapy.
Social and emotional delay
Children may experience what are known as social and/or emotional developmental delays, which can manifest as difficulties in interacting with adults or with other children. In most cases, these issues manifest themselves before a child starts attending school. There is no known cure to this type of condition. However therapy could greatly improve your child’s social and emotional development.
Cognitive Developmental Delay
Thinking difficulties, also known as cognitive delays, could be the result of any one or more of the following factors:
- Genetic defects
- Significant prenatal medical issues that needed to be addressed
- Contact with potentially hazardous elements of the surrounding environment, such as toxins
Possible causes. The following are some of the causes of cognitive delays:
- A diverse array of different forms of learning disabilities
- Ingestion of alcohol or toxins before or after birth, including lead poisoning, can cause birth defects.
- A history of neglect or institutionalization during the infant or early childhood years
- The genetic conditions known as Down syndrome and others
- Autism spectrum disorder
Types of treatment
Early treatment, as is the case with the majority of different types of developmental delays, can make a significant difference in the amount of progress your child makes. Your child can benefit from educational intervention in order to develop particular cognitive skills. Educators and therapists may employ play therapy or behavioral therapy, and they may also recommend certain actions for you to take at home in order to assist your child. Play therapy and behavioral therapy are two examples.
What to do if you suspect a delay in your child?
There is a broad spectrum of what constitutes normal child development. The majority of children who experience a delay in their development will eventually get back on track with their peers. When treatment begins as soon as it possibly can, even children who have significant developmental delays can make significant strides toward improvement.
The key is to get involved at an early stage. Infants and toddlers who qualify for services under the Individuals With Disabilities Act of the United States are entitled to receive services such as speech or physical therapy, social services, and nutritional counseling. In addition, children can receive a public education that is specially designed to accommodate their developmental delays up until the age of 21.